C S Peirce Et Le Pragmatisme

Autor: Claudine Tiercelin
Publisher: Collège de France
ISBN: 2722601907
File Size: 39,41 MB
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Pionnier en maints domaines de la logique et de la philosophie – de la connaissance, du langage, des mathématiques, et de la psychologie –, Peirce (1839-1914) est surtout connu pour ses travaux en sémiotique. C’est aussi le fondateur du pragmatisme, l’un des courants philosophiques majeurs de la fin du xixe siècle et du début du xxe. Mais ce pragmatisme est encore méconnu, et trop souvent associé aux deux autres théoriciens classiques du mouvement, William James et John Dewey. Pourtant, à son époque déjà, Peirce l’avait rebaptisé « pragmaticisme », pour se démarquer de la lecture trop matérialiste, utilitariste et moralisatrice de ses sectateurs. Pour lui, le pragmatisme s’entendait surtout non comme une doctrine, mais comme une méthode de clarification conceptuelle, reposant sur une interprétation sémantique et sémiotique de la logique, qui devait, une fois éliminés les faux problèmes de la métaphysique, ouvrir à une nouvelle conception de l’enquête scientifique, de la signification et de la connaissance, au service d’une métaphysique scientifique et réaliste, fortement inspirée de Duns Scot. Le but de cet ouvrage est de dégager trois caractéristiques majeures du pragmatisme peircien : thérapeutique, méthode philosophique de « manipulation des signes », méthode scientifique de fixation des croyances vraies. Là résident la spécificité, l’originalité et la fécondité du pragmatisme peircien, qui interdisent de le confondre avec celui de James ou de Dewey, comme avec le néo-pragmatisme contemporain (Richard Rorty).

Metaphysical Knowledge

Autor: Claudine Tiercelin
Publisher: Collège de France
ISBN: 272260230X
File Size: 47,61 MB
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Metaphysics has been proclaimed to be archaic or outdated. Actually, it never “died”. It has even experienced considerable revival throughout the world, which in France we have yet to fully appreciate. Because, in both the most general and the most precise ways, it questions “what there is”, it is essential to any knowledge-related undertaking, in the sense not of a recognition of eternal truths but of an enquiry on the world and on reality. In this lecture Claudine Tiercelin sets out the programme of a scientific and realist metaphysics rooted in the rationalist tradition and diametrically opposed to obscurantist spiritualism and post-modern relativism.

The American Pragmatists

Autor: Cheryl Misak
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191651389
File Size: 46,78 MB
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Cheryl Misak presents a history of the great American philosophical tradition of pragmatism, from its inception in the Metaphysical Club of the 1870s to the present day. This ambitious new account identifies the connections between traditional American pragmatism and contemporary philosophy and argues that the most defensible version of pragmatism — roughly, that of Peirce, Lewis, and Sellars — must be seen and recovered as an important part of the analytic tradition.

The Pragmatists And The Human Logic Of Truth

Autor: Claudine Tiercelin
Publisher: Collège de France
ISBN: 272260339X
File Size: 43,57 MB
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The expression “human logic of truth” is Frank P. Ramsey’s:“Let us therefore try to get an idea of a human logic which shall not attempt to be reducible to formal logic. Logic, we may agree, is concerned not with what men actually believe, but what they ought to believe, or what it would be reasonable to believe. What then, we must ask, is meant by saying that it is reasonable for a man to have such and such a degree of belief in a proposition?” Many themes developed by Ramsey in his work (on belief, truth, knowledge, but also in ethics)manifest the outstanding inspiration of the founder of pragmatism, C. S. Peirce, who is explicitly referred to in several places. Fundamentally, Peirce’s conception of truth is such that he who searches it may be able and forced to adopt it. The human logic of truth he defends goes hand in hand with the view that “real pragmatic truth is truth as can and ought to be used as a guide for conduct”. While the views of other major pragmatists (William James, John Dewey, and Hilary Putnam) are also carefully analyzed and contrasted, Peirce’s conception is shown to present at least three advantages: “to provide the rational framework for inquiry to proceed” (it is genuinely “logical”), to “make sense of the practice of inquiry as the search for truth”, as something which is not transcendent, beyond inquiry, but accessible (it is genuinely “human”), and finally “to justify a methodology” by encouraging the inquirer to put his beliefs to the test of experience.

Pragmatism And Political Theory

Autor: Matthew Festenstein
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0745666256
File Size: 20,53 MB
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This exciting new book is the first comprehensive and critical study of the relationship between the Pragmatist tradition and political theory. Festenstein develops his argument through a detailed and original reading of four key thinkers: John Dewey, Richard Rorty, Jurgen Habermas and Hilary Putnam.

Warlike And Peaceful Societies

Autor: Agner Fog
Publisher: Open Book Publishers
ISBN: 1783744065
File Size: 49,62 MB
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Are humans violent or peaceful by nature? We are both. In this ambitious and wide-ranging book, Agner Fog presents a ground-breaking new argument that explains the existence of differently organised societies using evolutionary theory. It combines natural sciences and social sciences in a way that is rarely seen. According to a concept called regality theory, people show a preference for authoritarianism and strong leadership in times of war or collective danger, but desire egalitarian political systems in times of peace and safety. These individual impulses shape the way societies develop and organise themselves, and in this book Agner argues that there is an evolutionary mechanism behind this flexible psychology. Incorporating a wide range of ideas including evolutionary theory, game theory, and ecological theory, Agner analyses the conditions that make us either strident or docile. He tests this theory on data from contemporary and ancient societies, and provides a detailed explanation of the applications of regality theory to issues of war and peace, the rise and fall of empires, the mass media, economic instability, ecological crisis, and much more. Warlike and Peaceful Societies: The Interaction of Genes and Culture draws on many different fields of both the social sciences and the natural sciences. It will be of interest to academics and students in these fields, including anthropology, political science, history, conflict and peace research, social psychology, and more, as well as the natural sciences, including human biology, human evolution, and ecology.

Sexual Murderers

Autor: Jean Proulx
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470059532
File Size: 44,60 MB
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Little is known about Sexual Murderers – those who kill in a sexual context. Recent studies have compared their backgrounds and characteristics with that of rapists and/or violent (non-sexual) offenders. This translation of a French original by the renowned Jean Proulx challenges existing knowledge on sexual murders, offers new tools for profiling and interrogation, and helps to establish a new research base. Current theories of sexual murder, its prevalence, reasons including attachment theories, profiling and interrogation techniques are all addressed in Proulx’s distinctive, thought-provoking style.

La Pens E Signe

Autor: Claudine Tiercelin
Publisher: Collège de France
ISBN: 2722602334
File Size: 23,98 MB
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Fondateur du pragmatisme américain, Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914) est considéré comme le logicien de ce mouvement. Il fut pourtant, tout autant que William James, un grand psychologue, travaillant à l’essor de la psychologie expérimentale naissante, essayant surtout de penser les liens possibles entre logique, psychologie et métaphysique, par l’élaboration d’une « analyse logique des produits de la pensée », inspirée du kantisme et des médiévaux (Ockam et Duns Scot). Anti-psychologiste décidé et pourtant favorable à la prise en compte de certains faits de psychologie, soucieux d’élargir la logique formelle à sa dimension philosophique (ou sémiotique), Peirce a voulu construire un nouveau modèle du mental, qui s’étendrait à d’autres formes d’intelligence que la penséehumaine, par une utilisation formelle des signes qui reste néanmoins attentive à leur vague irréductible. En présentant les grands axes de ce projet – critique de l’intuition et de l’internalisme, vague de la sensation, théorie de la pensée-signe, sémiotique du vague, réflexions sur les machines logiques, l’intentionnalité et les images mentales, conceptions normative de la rationalité et des croyances –, ces études ont pour but de faire apparaître l’originalité et la fécondité des idées peirciennes en philosophie de l’esprit, et de montrer la cohérence de ce projet philosophique proche à bien des égards de la troisième voie indiquée par Kant dans sa déduction des catégories, celle d’un « système de préformation de la raison pure ».